Computer Fundamentals : Overview

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Today’s world is an information-rich world and it has become a necessity for everyone to know about computers. A computer is an electronic data processing device, which accepts and stores data input, processes the data input, and generates the output in a required format.

The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce you to Computers and its fundamentals.

Functionalities of a Computer :

If we look at it in a very broad sense, any digital computer carries out the following five functions:

Step 1 – Takes data as input.

Step 2 – Stores the data/instructions in its memory and uses them as required.

Step 3 – Processes the data and converts it into useful information.

Step 4 – Generates the output.

Step 5 – Controls all the above four steps.

Advantages of Computers :

High speed

  • Computer is a very fast device.
  • It is capable of performing calculation of very large amount of data.
  • The computer has units of speed in microsecond, nanosecond, and even the picosecond.
  • It can perform millions of calculations in a few seconds as compared to man who will spend many months to perform the same task.

Accuracy

  • In addition to being very fast, computers are very accurate.
  • The calculations are 100% error free.
  • Computers perform all jobs with 100% accuracy provided that the input is correct.

Storage Capability

  • Memory is a very important characteristic of computers.
  • A computer has much more storage capacity than human beings.
  • It can store large amount of data.
  • It can store any type of data such as images, videos, text, audio, etc.

Dilligence

  • Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness, and lack of concentration.
  • It can work continuously without any error and boredom.
  • It can perform repeated tasks with the same speed and accuracy.

Versatility

  • A computer is a very versatile machine.
  • A computer is very flexible in performing the jobs to be done.
  • This machine can be used to solve the problems related to various fields.
  • At one instance, it may be solving a complex scientific problem and the very next moment it may be playing a card game.

Reliability

  • A computer is a reliable machine.
  • Modern electronic components have long lives.
  • Computers are designed to make maintenance easy.

Automation

  • Computer is an automatic machine.
  • Automation is the ability to perform a given task automatically. Once the computer receives a program i.e., the program is stored in the computer memory, then the program and instruction can control the program execution without human interaction.

Reduction in Paper Work and Cost

  • The use of computers for data processing in an organization leads to reduction in paper work and results in speeding up the process.
  • As data in electronic files can be retrieved as and when required, the problem of maintenance of large number of paper files gets reduced.
  • Though the initial investment for installing a computer is high, it substantially reduces the cost of each of its transaction.

Disadvantages of Computers :

No I.Q.

  • A computer is a machine that has no intelligence to perform any task.
  • Each instruction has to be given to the computer.
  • A computer cannot take any decision on its own.

Dependency

  • It functions as per the user’s instruction, thus it is fully dependent on humans.

Environment

  • The operating environment of the computer should be dust free and suitable.

No Feeling

  • Computers have no feelings or emotions.
  • It cannot make judgment based on feeling, taste, experience, and knowledge unlike humans.

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