Computer Fundamentals : Application

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In this chapter, we will discuss the application of computers in various fields.


A computer has high speed of calculation,
diligence, accuracy, reliability, or versatility which
has made it an integrated part in all business

Computer is used in business organizations for: 

  • Payroll calculations
  • Budgeting
  • Sales Analysis
  • Financial forecasting
  • Managing employee database
  • Maintenance of stocks, etc.



Today, banking is almost totally dependent on

Banks provide the following facilities:

  • Online accounting facility, which includes
    checking current balance, making
    deposits and overdrafts, checking interest
    charges, shares, and trustee records.
  • ATM machines which are completely
    automated are making it even easier for
    customers to deal with banks.

banking computer


Insurance companies are keeping all records upto-date with the help of computers. Insurance
companies, finance houses, and stock broking
firms are widely using computers for their

Insurance companies are maintaining a database
of all clients with information showing:

  • Procedure to continue with policies
  • Starting date of the policies
  • Next due installment of a policy
  • Maturity date
  • Interests due
  • Survival benefits
  • Bonus


The computer helps in providing a lot of facilities in the education system.

  • The computer provides a tool in the education system known as CBE (Computer Based
  • CBE involves control, delivery, and
    evaluation of learning.
  • Computer education is rapidly increasing
    the graph of number of computer students.
  • There are a number of methods in which
    educational institutions can use a computer
    to educate the students.
  • It is used to prepare a database about
    performance of a student and analysis is carried out on this basis.



In marketing, uses of the computer are following:

  • Advertising – With computers, advertising
    professionals create art and graphics, write
    and revise copy, and print and disseminate
    ads with the goal of selling more products.
  • Home Shopping – Home shopping has
    been made possible through the use of
    computerized catalogues that provide
    access to product information and permit
    direct entry of orders to be filled by the


Computers have become an important part in hospitals, labs, and dispensaries. They are
being used in hospitals to keep the record of patients and medicines. It is also used in scanning
and diagnosing different diseases. ECG, EEG, ultrasounds and CT scans, etc. are also done by
computerized machines.

Following are some major fields of health care in which computers are used.

  • Diagnostic System – Computers are used to collect data and identify the cause of
  • Lab-diagnostic System – All tests can be
    done and the reports are prepared by
  • Patient Monitoring System – These are
    used to check the patient’s signs for
    abnormality such as in Cardiac Arrest, ECG,
  • Pharma Information System
    – Computer is used to check drug labels,
    expiry dates, harmful side effects, etc.
  • Surgery – Nowadays, computers are also used in performing surgery.

Engineering Design

Computers are widely used for Engineering purpose.

One of the major areas is CAD (Computer Aided Design) that provides creation and
modification of images. Some of the fields are:

  • Structural Engineering – Requires stress
    and strain analysis for design of ships,
    buildings, budgets, airplanes, etc.
  • Industrial Engineering – Computers
    deal with design, implementation, and
    improvement of integrated systems of
    people, materials, and equipment.
  • Architectural Engineering – Computers
    help in planning towns, designing
    buildings, determining a range of buildings
    on a site using both 2D and 3D drawings.


Computers are largely used in defence. Modern
tanks, missiles, weapons, etc. Military also
employs computerized control systems. Some
military areas where a computer has been used

  • Missile Control
  • Military Communication
  • Military Operation and Planning
  • Smart Weapons


Communication is a way to convey a message, an idea, a picture, or speech that is received
and understood clearly and correctly by the person
for whom it is meant. Some main areas in this
category are:

  • E-mail
  • Chatting
  • Usenet
  • FTP
  • Telnet
  • Video-conferencing


Computers play an important role in government services. Some major fields in this category

  • Budget
  • Sales tax department
  • Income tax department
  • Computation of male/female ratio
  • Computerization of voters lists
  • Computerization of PAN card
  • Weather forecasting

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